COVID-19 Global Impact and It’s Testing-Techniques.mahesh kandakatla
Need of Today: Early Detection of coronavirus and SARS-COVID-19 testing techniques.
Undoubtedly whole of the Human race is struggling against a pandemic. It is no more a fight to find a vaccine and prove human’s scientific dominance. Rather it turns into a struggle for survival of the human race itself. Some experts relate it with influenza, the flu of 1918 which according to WHO costs 5,00,00,000 lives at that time. But this modern-day Influenza, because of its easy to transmit nature, seems to be way more dangerous. When Dr. Anthony Fauci, Top expert in this field, believes the current phase as a starting one. This virus leads to 56904 deaths with a growth rate of 13% per day and 10 lakh plus casualties.
Present scenario of COVID-19
As days pass on, it seems whole this world becomes numberholic and COVID-19 global impact is depressing at this time. Numbers flow from TV news debate to general public gathering debates. Amid this number-centric discussion, phase let us take an opportunity to discuss something different above all, it is something serious and something more useful. In this article, we will find out various COVID-19 testing techniques and kit availability. Let us talk about something that everyone must know in the present scenario.
Today’s most haunting real tragedy: Worldwide coronavirus outbreak. It is believed to be spread from the wet market of Wuhan city of China. Because these markets sell densely packed animals and birds. So it can be the reason that hygiene standards are not good there. So that this virus jumped from animal species to human communities. This is a spillover event that coronavirus has jumped from animal species to humans. However, the original host of the coronavirus is thought to be bats because the bat is a host of a wide range of zoonotic viruses. These findings are yet not confirmed as they need more research over it to observe COVID-19 global impact.
What is coronavirus?
Coronavirus comes from a family that ranges from the common cold to MERS Coronavirus (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) and SARs (severe acute respiratory syndrome). This virus has a crown-shaped structure above it as seen under the microscopes that’s why naming the corona. Coronavirus is a family of viruses. Some of the types of it can cause the common cold and mild to moderate respiratory diseases in humans. But now that the new species of coronavirus which circulate between animals has introduced to humans. The respiratory attacks are getting severe and thousands of deaths are still in count due to it worldwide.
How coronavirus spreads:
Coronavirus spreads by the droplets released by an infected person in the air by coughing or sneezing. The virus cannot bear the external temperature. So it is thought to be not air-borne but it can spread if we are in contact with the patient. So, social distancing is helpful to stop the chain spreading of coronavirus in communities.
Symptoms of COVID-19
- High fever
- Shortness of breathing
The Incubation period of Coronavirus:
Symptoms of COVID-19 clearly seen after 14 days since the person gets infected.
Tests for Coronavirus:
There are tests performed in the lab to detect coronavirus infection which detects the virus presence and detection of antibodies produced in the body after the infection. The sample testing techniques could be:
- A swab test: The sample can be taken by a cotton swab from inside the throat and nose.
- By a nasal aspirate: A saline solution will be injected in your nose. Then by gentle suction technique, the sample is taken outside
- By Tracheal aspiration: In this technique, a thin tube (bronchoscope) will be inserted into your respiratory tract. It goes to the lungs and collects samples there.
- Sputum test: This is a test where the mucus sample from your lungs brings to the test from your nose while coughing.
- Blood test: Blood samples test for all the variants of coronavirus by specialized gene sequencing tests. It confirms the presence of markers of the coronavirus in the blood cells.
- rRT-PCR: In labs, The SARS-CoV-2 virus detection can be done by the method called serology. Where we detect the antibodies in the sample. real-time Reverse transcription-polymerase reaction (rRT-PCR) is the test on the sputum sample. This test gives results in a few hours to two days.
- By isothermal nucleic acid amplification: A Few days back Abbott launches a test for COVID-19 by FDA approval. It can give you faster results, as the time taken by this technique for a positive result is 5 minutes and It takes 13 minutes for a negative result as reported by Abbott.
COVID-19 testing techniques and kits available so far:
- In January 2020 Berlin developed a confirmatory PCR test (r RT-PCR) and distributed 250,000 kits, by world health organization (WHO).
- Kegenbiotech a South Korean company has developed a PCR based test kit (powercheck coronavirus) on 28 January 2020. It detects the ‘E’ gene expressed by all beta-coronaviruses.
- The Center for Disease Control and prevention in the United States is also distributing its real-time RT PCR diagnostic panel to public health labs there. And these tests get approval by the Food and Drug Administration under an Emergency Use Authorization.
- In Russia, on 11 February 2020 COVID-19 test was registered by Federal service for surveillance in healthcare by the state research center for virology and Biotechnology VECTOR.
- A rapid test developed by Taiwan in which monoclonal antibody specifically attaches to the N protein (nucleocapsid protein) of the coronavirus. It is a serology test therefore It gives results in 15-20 minutes.
COVID-19 test techniques and kits in INDIA:
According to the media reports, four multinational companies are manufacturing and supplying more than a million diagnostic kits to India for the novel coronavirus.
- US-based Thermo Fisher Scientific: Thermo fisher is promising support to the Indian government and labs. So, it is providing COVID-19 test kits. In addition, the company is producing the required reagents, as per the demand is increasing day by day for COVID-19 testing.
- Germany’s Siemens and Altona: Siemens expected to produce 100,000 tests till 10 April 2020. It will provide 30,000-40,000 tests to ICMR for free.
- South Korea’s Seegene: Seegene is also scaling up the production of test kits. It is expecting to deliver about 1 million kits to Indian governments and private labs by 10 April 2020.
- Rapid Antibody Test kits:- The Indian government has also approved 12 Rapid Antibody Test kits from 16 companies. Out of which 7 are china based companies. These kits can provide a positive result in 30 minutes after to 7-10 days of infection. The approval is granted to BioMednomics (USA), Getein Biotech (China), Sensing Self Ltd.(Singapore), Hangzhou Biotest Biotech (China), AmonMed Biotechnology Co (China), Beijing Tigsun Diagnostic Co Ltd. (China), Biomaxima (Poland), CTK Biotech (USA), Hunan Lituo Biotechnology Co (China), Vivacheck Lab (China) and WondFo (China).
COVID-19 Test-kits developed in India:
The Indian government has approved two companies of India to produce and supply COVID-19 test kits.
- Mylab is the first company in India, to get approval from the Indian FDA /CDSCO, for COVID-19 diagnostic test kits on 24 March 2020. These kits can study 1000 samples from larger labs and 200 samples from smaller labs. Mylab is expecting to produce about 100,000 kits in a week. It will increase production as the demand increases.
- 3B BlackBio Biotech a subsidiary of kilpest India Ltd.:- This company is the second company to receive approval, for COVID-19 testing techniques. It is a molecular detection test for a COVID-19 specific gene for a confirmatory test. This company also made a home test kit for the H1N1 pandemic earlier. kilpest India Ltd is promising to manufacture 10,000 kits by a week and so on as per the need.
- Bione is a Bengaluru based company that launches India’s first ICMR approved Home test kit for COVID-19 on 3 April 2020. It gives results in a few minutes. this is not among 100% reliable COVID-19 testing techniques. This test kits test the blood sample, for this one needs to: 1. Clean the finger by alcohol swab and prick by the lancet provided in the kit and 2. After that, put the blood sample in the provided cartridge. it reads the result in 5-10 minutes. The kit’s price is from 2000-3000 rupees and you can order it on the company’s website. Bione is expecting to supply 20,000 kits per week. However, The home test kits are not 100% reliable. So that the company advises people to go for the laboratory test if the symptoms continue.
Necessity is the mother of all Inventions; In conclusion, It seems to be very much true in the present scenario. As we are working on this article India came across Its praan Vayu, a more cheap and portable ventilator with the joint effort of students of IIT-Roorkee and AIIMS-Rishikesh that cost Rs. 25,000 Only. Indian government placed an order of 10,000 pieces which will be completed by funding and labor of Maruti. This week we come across important development when blood plasma of survivor used to treat COVID-19 patients in china. With the success rate of 60-70% (though the number of tests is less). So, this experiment might prove to be the cure.
No doubt we will get away from this situation soon but we must understand that we are in a time, which in near future will be termed as landmark history though a dark one. In other words, many experts even termed it as world war 3. Cases of corona flu will soon be an important part of medical literature and what is more fascinating is that we are living at this time. We don’t want to giggle around only with numbers when our future generation asks us about this pandemic, rather we should have some concrete knowledge or in other words, we should make our basic clear right now. Hope this article has done some justice in this regard.