COMPLETE REPORT ON COVID-19Nuturemite
This article contains about India’s situation now and after, the USA’s current situation and future of the USA , Why top nations failed in containment? Information about vaccines,Masks, testing techniques…etc Don’t make a lag and jump into this interesting article.
PRESENT SCENARIO IN INDIA AND WHAT CAN WE EXPECT IN FUTURE?
NOTE: ALL THE STATISTICS AND NUMBERS PROVIDED IN THIS ARTICLE ARE UP TO DATE AS JUNE 14 2020 AND ALL THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IS FOR ONLY EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE.
Relaxation from lockdown! Is this a good news to hear?
The Indian government announced lockdown 5.0 which allows not only essential services but everything except crowd gathering places like colleges, schools institutions.
As in India by today COVID-19 confirmed cases crossed 3,20,000 mark with over 1,50,000 active cases, 1,60,000 recovered cases, and 9,204 deaths so far. On the other hand, the recovery rate has improved significantly with 49.4%.
Following the stats of COVID-19 cases India ramps up efforts to contain COVID-19 spread but the exact thing we need to know is Indian Government is gradually rising its hands because as we see for the first lockdown declared in India on March 25 the Indian government took very good initiative.
They contain the COVID-19 up to some extent but slowly the COVID-19 cases are increasing because there is some movement and some relaxation in India but now the movement, activities are so high and by stats that every day COVID-19 cases are increasing like every day there will be 11000 plus positive cases however recovery rate is rising slowly we are losing our grip on containment.
And next the Transportation is among the worst hit by Covid-19 and within that aviation has hit the hardest. For March, India’s domestic air passenger traffic fell by 11.8% compared with the corresponding month last year. Even now also international travel into the country are well banned.
Here, international travels are the biggest reason for this situation we currently facing because the initial COVID-19 cases are all came alone from the international passengers who entered into India.
This lockdown relaxation will help daily wage workers and daily wage business owners because due to this lockdown no one comes out, starts their work like hotels, fruit shops, Grocery stores, etc. But from now they can reinitiate their work and they can successfully lead their lives as before. This may earn some money to them but they should take care of themselves because recently we heard so many people got infected to coronavirus after this lockdown because of a lack of control in individuals.
Recently India crossed china In COVID-19 confirmed cases and we should bother about this rare milestone because China is the world’s most populous country in the World and it successfully contained the COVID-19 whether the Virus is made in China lab or it naturally outbursts China also experiences COVID-19 cases and deaths too.
It contains the deadly virus spread in their country in a few months but the big question is that Can India will contain Coronavirus from their land or not?
On the other hand, India’s economy falls although Prime Minister releases a 20,00,000 crore package by some name to contain this virus and avoid this pandemic situation.
Now the Indian Government made some huge relaxations from lockdown due to the fall of the Indian Economy and there is no need to oppose government because in this pandemic situation every step is worthy and we Indians should value our government’s decision.
The lockdown is easing in several parts of the country and non-essential shops are getting back in business. But after having to shut shop for close to three months, it can never be ‘business as usual’.
The organized retail sector has borne losses to the tune of ₹90,000 crores in the last two months. Revenues have been nil, but expenses continue to mount: EMIs, rent, maintenance, staff salaries, etc.
Now the main obstacle for the government is the Economy growth and position of India in the world nations but human lives are also so precious. The government is doing it’s best to people and Nation’s growth but this is not the time to dominate the Economy over human Lives.
On the whole, we should think about our future in some days total relaxation will be provided and everything will be as same as a pre lockdown situation but we should move on with this deadly virus. One should take care of himself and his/her neighbors and mainly one should be scared of this virus and its spread. By today India is the seventh country with most COVID-19 and it just beginning because we are the world’s second-most populous country and as like the USA, Brazil, etc we are going to enter the community transmission stage soon. And if we going to experience that then it will be the most worse situation. So Individually one should contain from him/her and one should feel most responsible towards others in the society.
On the final note, The future of India is going to decline in all aspects as after the lockdown India’s economy was the worst hit aspect, and also lethality rate will be high.
But there is a hope to the nation that all other major nations like Japan, USA, Brazil…etc are going to withdraw their operations from China and their largest alternative in India so after this pandemic India can emerge as a super nation and India also making very healthy relationships with these nations, so all aspects can lead to better future to India but during this session, every nation must experience fall in the economy.
This all offers can be beneficial but the human lives shouldn’t be the cost of those for that the government makes all necessary actions and decisions the only way to save our country and our lives is to control ourselves and one must contain themselves to the spread and every individual should be scared of this infection because nowadays all are going out and making all the works which are non-essential too, this type of situation should be avoided. The main step to follow is every Indian must and should take care of his neighbor or his contacts. Then only this situation can be normalized and India’s future can be enjoyed by all people.
CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE OF UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN THIS PANDEMIC
America’s world’s most powerful country in all aspects and now the country with most COVID-19 confirmed cases and it stood first in the list with over 1,17,000 deaths.
Why the country with all facilities and the already developed nation doesn’t contain this infection’s spread. America facing the worst situation in its country’s history because in the USA the COVID-19 spread went into level-4 transmission means community transmission it was the worst stage of the spread of this infection.
The USA is experiencing this and we can see its results in the stats of world’s COVID-19 cases.
The USA also implemented and announced lockdowns but as same as other nations it works up to some extent and the fear of the nation’s economy fall makes the relaxations in the lockdown and makes people more comfortable to move and participate in necessary works.
The present situation of America is also very worst as we know that the death of George Floyd in the protests rises more activities in public and which leads to more movement in the public.
Recently we got a piece of news that George Floyd having COVID-19 before it’s death means in the USA it’s spread was asymptomatic, one can’t judge himself that he doesn’t have COVID-19 virus and by the time of knowing that he was positive for this infection he/she makes more and more activities and that leads to even more and rapid spread of COVID-19 in the country.
The government of the world’s most powerful nation is also raising its hand in this pandemic situation that they are going to face situations like lack of ventilators, lack of beds for patients.
The government shifted the responsibility of human life to the individuals means one should take care of himself and his/her contacts.
US President Donald Trump stated that this situation will be going on until they can succeed in the vaccine up to one should save their own life and one should responsible for the Infection spread.
Because in the USA the deaths caused by this virus cross 1,17,000 and this number is not stopping any soon and it will increases rapidly due to the more traffic in the people.
The Government and American’s failed in this crisis and pandemic situation, In Italy, no one took COVID-19 as serious as it results in 800-900 deaths per day and it’s governance failure. The USA also much like Italy but the USA contains the spread well in its first phase but day by day it taking hands apart from it and it makes the country’s situation worst, as a result, they are facing this situation.
The coronavirus is spreading from America’s biggest cities to its suburbs and has begun encroaching on the nation’s rural regions. The virus is believed to have infected millions of citizens and has killed more than 1,00,000. Yet President Donald Trump this past week proposed guidelines for reopening the economy and suggested that a swath of the United States would soon resume something resembling normalcy.
More than 20 experts in public health, medicine, epidemiology, and history shared their thoughts on the future during in-depth interviews. The scenario that Trump has been unrolling at his daily press briefings — that the lockdowns will end soon, that a protective pill is almost at hand.
In the worst-case scenario, America is on a trajectory toward 1.1 million deaths. That model envisions the sick pouring into hospitals, overwhelming even makeshift beds in parking lot tents. Doctors would have to make agonizing decisions about who gets scarce resources. Shortages of front-line clinicians would worsen as they get infected, some dying alongside their patients. Trust in government, already tenuous, would erode further. In some situations, the USA ran out of some medicines like Hydroxychloroquine which will show results in some immune systems.
Now the big question is that will USA the world’s most powerful country and developed nation and country with a 99% literacy rate, the mother of MNC’s can retain its position and can it will bounce back and make the new comeback into World’s market.
The USA will bother about their population and their masses because they are the backbone of the country but why their government shows negligence towards their people in this pandemic situation.
The reason is economy and why every country needs economy rather than their people’s lives as we can know that that USA’s GDP is $21.428 Trillion and Why can’t they declare complete lockdown and use their GDP to save human lives? These all are out of point but one nation can contain Coronavirus spread with fewer deaths by making the above procedure without depending upon people.
USA people are known for unity when it comes to a crisis and currently, in the USA, the government raises its hands and makes everyone responsible for the future of the USA population.
One should be their only own hope for their lives because neither the vaccine was coming any soon nor the situation in the USA is good.
People must restrict themselves and be patient in this pandemic whatever it takes one must be in their limits when they exposed to others and minimum safety like wearing masks, sanitizing them frequently, and maintaining social distance while they are at workplaces. And this should be continued so far because the situation and scenario are worst over there. Every people should take it as seriously from the beginning because it’s the game with life. Not only their own life but also they should take care of their contacts, neighbors. And the future of America will be affected but the effectiveness is based on them.
WHY TOP NATIONS FAILED TO CONTAIN THE COVID-19 SPREAD? HOW IT TRYS TO FACE THE VIRUS?
The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), officially named as COVID-19 pandemic by the WHO, has spread to more than 180 countries including China.
Confirmed novel coronavirus cases increased ten-fold in less than a month, from 100,000 in the first week of March to more than seven million on 13 June, while more than 4,30,000 deaths have been reported across the world. Europe has become the new epicenter of coronavirus. More than 90% of the global COVID-19 cases are currently outside China.
Here the information for the COVID-19 affected nations
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has declared the COVID-19 outbreak as a global pandemic, on 11 March.
The US also declared the outbreak as a public health emergency on 1 February and temporarily banned travel from European nations to the US
Researchers in China and pharmaceutical companies including Abbvie, Inovio, and Gilead Sciences are working on developing coronavirus vaccines and drugs.
The world’s most affected economies due to coronavirus are the European Union, the US, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam, according to UNCTAD’s preliminary estimates of trade impact.
Here some of COVID-19 affected nations (Can’t cover all 180 countries)
Firstly ITALY which made the whole world serious about COVID-19
Coronavirus cases and the death toll in Italy have raised sharply surpassing China, marking one of the highest numbers of cases and deaths. The Head of Italy’s Democratic Party is among coronavirus-infected.
Italy reported its first death due to COVID-19 on 22 February, followed by another a day later and five more on 24 February. Fatalities have increased significantly since then.
Although initially limited to Northern Italy, coronavirus later spread to the rest of the country. The Italian government has implemented various measures to control the pandemic spread, including lock-down, limiting the transport, and closure of public buildings. The Venice Carnival, an annual event, was closed as part of the measures.
The first two coronavirus cases in Italy were reported on 30 January 2020. The patients were Chinese tourists who arrived in Rome and are currently placed under isolation in Spallanzani institute.
As an immediate measure, Italy canceled all direct flights to China and made quarantine mandatory to those traced to have contact with the infected.
Educational institutes have been closed as a precautionary measure.
Thousands of infected Italians are in intensive care currently. The aged population makes the coronavirus outbreak worse for Italy.
And next GERMANY,
The risk level from coronavirus in Germany has been raised to high, as the country struggles to contain the rising number of coronavirus cases.
The country announced the nationwide shutdown of all businesses, schools, universities, and venues as well as a ban on public gatherings on 16 March.
Germany has also closed its borders with other European countries including Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg, and Denmark. The government has announced an economic aid package to businesses to keep them from going bankrupt. The package includes at least €500bn ($550bn) in loan guarantees and unlimited credit to businesses affected by the outbreak. The government will also make it easy for businesses to access loans from KfW, the state development bank, and delay tax payments.
CANADA, a country with a 100% literacy rate also doesn’t stop the spread
The first case of coronavirus infection was reported on 25 January 2020 by the Government of Ontario in a man who visited Wuhan. The second case was that of the patient’s wife and confirmed of having the infection on 27 January 2020.
On 28 January 2020, a third case was confirmed by the Government of British Columbia in a patient who visited the city of Wuhan.
A total of 352 Canadians were on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, out of who 43 tested positive. The Canadian government evacuated 129 Canadian nationals and their family members through a chartered plane, which arrived at Canadian Forces Base (CFB) in Trenton on 21 February.
The first two coronavirus cases in the UK were confirmed on 31 January. The two patients are members of the same family and currently undergoing specialist care by the National Health Service.
The latest confirmed case is the health minister of the country, Nadine Dorries. An elderly woman with underlying health conditions was reported as the country’s first death on 05 March.
The UK Secretary of State announced new regulations to deal with the prevention of coronavirus infection, which has now been categorized as a serious and imminent threat to public health.
Coronavirus in China was limited to very few provinces. The highest number of confirmed cases were reported from the Hubei province, where the virus is believed to have originated. The number of coronavirus deaths and cured cases is also the highest in the province.
The province reported 14,840 new confirmed cases on a single day, on 12 February. The spike in coronavirus numbers in Hubei occurred after healthcare workers began using a new methodology of CT scans for faster diagnosis of the disease. Nucleic acid tests were used earlier to evaluate suspected cases. China has started reporting cases confirmed using the new methodology under the clinically diagnosed category.
The number of new cases reported in China, however, declined for the first time since the outbreak on 18 February and reached the lowest in March.
China reported the first confirmed case of the coronavirus infection originating in Wuhan in December 2019. The special administrative regions of Macau and Hong Kong reported the first confirmed cases on 22 January and 23 January, respectively.
The majority of the cases in Japan are reported in Osaka, Hokkaido, Chiba Prefecture, Kanagawa Prefecture, Tokyo, Aichi Prefecture, and Nagoya City.
Japan was the second country to report a COVID-19 infection outside China, on 16 January 2020 in a man who traveled to Wuhan.
The first coronavirus death in Japan was reported on 13 February. The death was of a woman in her 80s in Kanagawa Prefecture near Tokyo. A third death was reported on 26 February and a fourth of 27 February.
Confirmed cases were reported from a group of tourists aboard the Diamond Princess cruise ship, which was quarantined off Yokohama. A total of 3,711 passengers and crew were on board the cruise ship. Two elderly people including an 87-year-old man and an 84-year-old woman out of the confirmed cases died on 20 February.
The Japanese health officials allowed passengers who did not exhibit any symptoms of the disease since the beginning of the quarantine period and tested negative for the virus to disembark the ship on 19 February.
According to WorldPop data, Japan receives the second-highest number of travelers from the high-risk Chinese cities affected by the COVID-19
The Australian government announced a stimulus package of A$66.4bn ($38.5bn) on 22 March to protect the country from the economic impact of the coronavirus outbreak.
The government will help small and medium-sized companies to underwrite loans and provide cash grants to not-for-profits and small businesses to prevent them from laying off employees.
The package will also provide unemployment benefits to employees who are laid off by companies. Further, it will grant people in financial distress with up to A$10,000 of tax-free pension funds for the current and next year.
This is the second stimulus package announced by the country, which previously announced a A$17.6bn ($11.4bn) stimulus package on 12 March. The package will provide cash payments to small businesses and welfare recipients.
With the two stimulus packages, the country has announced financial measures, which are equivalent to approximately 10% of the country’s annual gross domestic product.
The government of Australia also announced a A$2.4bn ($1.56 bn) health package to set up fever clinics and offer free online consultation services for people to avoid the spreading of the virus.
Confirmed cases have been reported in the regions of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and Western Australia. Ten of the confirmed cases are evacuees from the Diamond Princess cruise ship. Two of the patients tested negative in previous diagnoses in Japan. Health authorities are currently testing suspected cases who have shown symptoms of the virus.
The first coronavirus infection in Australia was confirmed on 25 January 2020 in a man who traveled from Guangzhou to Melbourne. On 29 January 2020, two new cases of the infection were reported including one in Queensland and another in Victoria.
Australia has evacuated its citizens from Wuhan since the outbreak. The citizens who were placed under quarantine in Christmas Island for 14 days were allowed to travel to their homes on 17 February.
New Zealand witnessed the first COVID-19 case on 28 February. The first detected was in a man in his 60s who returned from Iran on 26 February. He is currently being treated at Auckland City Hospital. Family members and close contacts of the person have been placed under isolation as a precautionary measure.
New Zealand’s first coronavirus suspected case was announced on 31 January but the tests turned out to be negative on 1 February, as announced by Dr. Ashley Bloomfield, the Director-General of Health. The person was suspected of contracting the disease and held in isolation at the Auckland City Hospital.
Eight New Zealand citizens were on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, out of who two tested positive for the virus. The six citizens who tested negative for the virus have been allowed to board an evacuation flight arranged by the Australian government. The remaining two passengers who tested positive for the virus were admitted for treatment in Japan.
As observing the stats released by the country officials, New Zealand people and government together contained the spread of this deadly virus because there is no new COVID-19 positive case for consecutive 17days.
It also regarded as the first COVID-19 major affected nation to the COVID-19 free nation.
And the situation of India and the United States of America is already discussed above.
RECOVERY RATE OF COVID-19 VICTIMS AND HOW IT MAKES A HOPE TO THE WORLD?
The first and foremost thing to know is what is recovery rate, the Recovery rate is a term used for the rate of recovery status shown by patients infected by COVID-19 (in this situation).
The recovery rate of patients is high in some nations and very low in some nations this depended on people over there immune and their commitment towards this deadly virus.
And one thing to observe is that the World’s total COVID-19 confirmed case is 78,00,000 and over 40,00,000 victims had recovered from the deadly Coronavirus and over 4,30,000 deaths.
By seeing this stats the world’s recovery rate is 51% which was enormous and it is a big thing to cheer but we should note here that the whole world is not suffering from COVID-19 so the stats may distract from some calculations.
And next to that how recovery rate is going to be a big game-changer in this pandemic so far we know that every nation has victims and so many of them recovered from this infection, based on age group, gender, immunity, self containment…. Etc.
But how it will make a change in this situation and can it be the hope of the rest of the world is a big question here, this total statistical analysis makes you understand this question.
Focusing on the positives in a bleak scenario is sometimes useful in avoiding fatigue from a prolonged campaign.
That the total number of discharged people with COVID-19, from the time the first-ever case was recorded in India, has exceeded the number of active cases is a milestone. As of 13 June, a total of 1,46,716 people have recovered, while the number of active cases was 1,42,697.
Over 49% recovery rate recorded in India and it is still increasing gradually.
We can see earlier months the positive cases were 100-200 and recovered cases were also 10-30 but now the positive cases per day are 11,000+ and the recovered cases are over 5,500.
So from here, we can know that India is fighting with this deadly virus up to it’s potential and masses of India are also able to fight COVID-19 gradually.
The steady increase in the number of people discharged is to be expected, especially given that the disease is now known to have a case fatality rate that is just about 2.8%.
At that figure, the rate of recoveries has no other way to go but steadily upwards, unless there is gross mismanagement of the health system. Nevertheless, for the warriors on the front lines, and for the people who run the health system in the country, this is one metric that is a direct measure of the success of their interventions.
However, it must be remembered that the Indian government revised its discharge policy, as have some other nations. No longer does a patient have to test negative twice over 24 hours; any patient who does not show any symptoms over three days is allowed to go home now. And patients who were on critical care require only one negative test to be discharged. Discharge is likely to be followed up with home isolation for seven days or two weeks, with restrictions on movement outside the home.
Recovery rate in the USA
As US having over 21,00,000 confirmed COVID-19 cases and in this huge number 8,50,000 recovered cases and 1,17,000 deaths mean by stats the US has 38% recovery rate and 5.5% fatality rate,
so here we can know that what is the reason for US’s current situation and this based on their containment and their government and people failed to contain the spread.
The country with the most recovery rate
Germany, which managed to flatten the curve in a little over a month, has a recovery rate of more than 90 percent.
It is followed by Iran and Italy, some of the earliest countries to become the pandemic epicentre. India is still below the world average of 49.3 per cent by a sliver.
These are some nations as we are not able to state every country here these countries stats will help us in this analysis.
IS RECOVERY RATE IS A THING TO CHEER?
In my views, the answer is YES because earlier when this virus outbreaks the recovery rate is not recorded up to this mark, now the recovery rate is getting increased means the whole world is fighting with COVID-19 without giving up, the most immune system plays a major role in recovery rate because one has high immunity will have the most chance of recovery from this infection.
On the whole, as the situation is going like this, the recovery rate will increase gradually and will fight against COVID-19 up to the vaccine arrives. But there must be a few deaths, so for this we need containment and one should self isolate and decrease their activities and movements and must maintain social distance and must think about other’s safety also.
HOW THE WORLD WILL GET IT’S BIGGEST SOLUTION TO THIS PANDEMIC?
Even as the countries around the world continue to battle the novel coronavirus, scientists, medical experts, and researchers across the globe are working in unprecedented ways to develop any treatment for COVID-19. The viral contagion is spreading at an exponential rate globally and as of now, more than 7 million people have been tested positive for the disease. In the absence of any definitive cure, social distancing measures and practicing personal hygiene remains our best bet to protect ourselves.
Vaccines work to prime your immune system against future “attacks” by a particular disease. There are vaccines against both viral and bacterial pathogens or disease-causing agents.
When a pathogen enters your body, your immune system generates antibodies to try to fight it off. Depending on the strength of your immune response and how effectively the antibodies fight off the pathogen, you may or may not get sick.
Vaccines work because of this function of the immune system. They’re made from a killed, weakened, or partial version of a pathogen. When you get a vaccine, whatever version of the pathogen it contains isn’t strong or plentiful enough to make you sick, but it’s enough for your immune system to generate antibodies against it. As a result, you gain future immunity against the disease without having gotten sick: if you’re exposed to the pathogen again, your immune system will recognize it and be able to fight it off. This statement tells the after the vaccine intake we are Virus-free but this will happen only with some sort of vaccines.
And know why aren’t all vaccines are effective?
Vaccines are designed to generate an immune response that will protect the vaccinated individual during future exposures to the disease. Individual immune systems, however, are different enough that in some cases, a person’s immune system will not generate an adequate response. As a result, he or she will not be effectively protected after immunization.
That said, the effectiveness of most vaccines is high. After receiving the second dose of the MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, and rubella) or the standalone measles vaccine, 99.7% of vaccinated individuals are immune to measles. The inactivated polio vaccine offers 99% effectiveness after three doses. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine is between 85% and 90% effective in preventing all varicella infections, but 100% effective in preventing moderate and severe chickenpox.
The global race for the vaccine is still going on, we can expect it at the end of this year but the world should face this virus up to then.
PROCESS BEHIND VACCINE DEVELOPMENT?
Vaccine technology has significantly evolved in the last decade, including the development of several RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DNA vaccine candidates, licensed vectored vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, and cell-culture-based vaccines, Amanat and Krammer point out. However, despite the many advances, including using artificial intelligence to determine potential vaccine candidates, the core principles of ensuring the safety and efficacy of the vaccine for use in humans remain unchanged. While technology might have quickened some of the processes, the trials for the vaccine need to stick by these principles that are time-consuming for a reason.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website, the general stages of the development cycle of a vaccine are exploratory stage, pre-clinical stage, clinical development, regulatory review and approval, manufacturing, and quality control. If vaccine candidates do make it to the third stage, clinical development is a three-phase process. It says: “During Phase I, small groups of people receive the trial vaccine. In Phase II, the clinical study is expanded and the vaccine is given to people who have characteristics (such as age and physical health) similar to those for whom the new vaccine is intended. In Phase III, the vaccine is given to thousands of people and tested for efficacy and safety.
If a vaccine is approved by a licensing agency, then it can move into the manufacturing stage, but constant monitoring of the process and quality control measures must be put in place.
Vaccine production should comply with the current Good Manufacturing Practice standards to ensure constant quality and safety of the vaccine.
As per WHO’s released Draft landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines there are 136 competitors in the globe to produce a vaccine for the SARS-CoV2 generally called COVID-19, but only 10 of them are in the clinical evaluation stage, means they are far more than those 126 candidates. In India, there are a lot more ideas to develop but no one of them is in the clinical evaluation stage.
|1||Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) live-attenuated vaccine||A] University of Melbourne and Murdoch Children’s Research Institute B] University Medical Centre C] Faustman Lab at Massachusetts General Hospital.||PHASE 2/3||A] Murdoch Children’s Research Institute B] Children’s Research Institute; UMC Utrecht|
|2||AZD1222||The University of Oxford||PHASE 2/3||A]Operation Warp Speed B] UK Ministry of Health; C]The University of Oxford; D]BARDA|
|3||mRNA-1273||Moderna||PHASE 2||A]Operation Ward Speed B]NIAID BARDA ($483 million)|
|4||BNT162||Pfizer, BioNTech||PHASE 1/2||A]Pfizer B] BioNTech|
|5||Inactivated vaccine||A]Wuhan Institute of Biological Products B]China National Pharmaceutical Group (Sinopharm)||PHASE 1/2||Ministry of Science and Technology, China|
|6||BBIBP-CorV||Beijing Institute of Biological Products China National Pharmaceutical Group (Sinopharm)||PHASE 1/2||Ministry of Science and Technology, China|
|7||Ad5-nCoV||CanSino Biologics||PHASE 1||CanSino Biologics|
|8||INO-4800||Inovio Pharmaceuticals||PHASE 1||Inovio Pharmaceuticals|
|9||PiCoVacc||Sinovac||PHASE 1||Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd.|
|10||NVX-CoV2373||Novavax||PHASE 1||A]Novavax, CEPI B]Department of Defense ($60 million)|
A vaccine would normally take years, if not decades, to develop. Researchers hope to achieve the same amount of work in only a few months.
Most experts think a vaccine is likely to become available by mid-2021, about 12-18 months after the new virus, known officially as Sars-CoV-2, first emerged.
That would be a huge scientific feat and there are no guarantees it will work.
Four coronaviruses already circulate in human beings. They cause common cold symptoms and we don’t have vaccines for any of them.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF MASKS AVAILABLE IN MARKET
Hey dude! Wear a mask
Sir, Wear a mask and protect yourself!
All should wear a mask and without it, no one should come out!
We listen to these words often, we normally take cares of ourself when any crisis or disaster comes and for this pandemic, the mask is the biggest defense as wearing a mask will protect you from inhaling of virus and especially for this COVID-19 transmitted through small droplets from the nose, mouth which are spread when a COVID-19 patient exhales or coughs.
Wearing a face mask will help prevent the spread of infection and prevent the individual from contracting any airborne infectious germs. When someone coughs, talks sneezes they could release germs into the air that may infect others nearby. Face masks are part of an infection control strategy to eliminate cross-contamination.
Now coming to types of masks available in the market and briefing about them can guide you people Who can wear a mask? and Which type of masks can help whom? And Which masks can avoid the spread and so many things you can know when you grow through this and before this we can go with small process discussion which one should ensure before wearing a mask
How should your face mask be worn?
1]Always wash your hands with soap and water before touching the face mask.
2]Remove the mask from the dispenser or box and make sure the masks do not have any holes or tears.
3]Make sure you determine which side is the top and which is the front of the mask, so you can properly wear the mask.
4]Face masks with ear loops: hold by the ear loops and put the loops around each ear.
5]Face masks with ties: bring a mask to your nose and place the ties over your head to secure with a tie.
6]Face masks with bands: hold the mask to your nose and pull the top strap over the crown of your head and pull the bottom strap over your head so its at the nape of your neck.
7]Pull the mask over your mouth and chin.
i] Surgical masks
The most commonly available form of masks in the market, surgical masks are the ones that are slightly loose-fitted around the mouth and used to protect a person against large splashes of droplets, water, sprays, and used in medical facilities. Since they are so popular and cost-effective, they also come in a variety of sizes, colors, and types. There are 2-ply and 3-ply masks available in the market.
While they do cover your mouth, surgical masks can’t protect you from catching or transmitting the coronavirus or any such microbe in the air, since it has loose gaps which can help the germs crawl in.
That being said, a high-grade surgical mask can stop the transmission of different kinds of viruses (up to 80-90%), especially if used by a person who is sick. It can help prevent large particles expelled by the wearer, such as spit or mucous, from entering the environment. If the wearer coughs or sneezes, the surgical mask will help collect the larger particles expelled.
ii] N95 and FFP1 masks (also called respirator masks)
N95 respirator masks are again widely being used right now to lessen the spread of coronavirus. It’s slightly more tight-fitted and vague looking, making it a better alternative to surgical masks. Masks with N95 rating filter 95% of particles 0.3 microns or larger in diameter, roughly the size of a single virus and include PM 2.5. Some masks also have an attachment called the exhalation valve, which can filter out humidity build-up. They also work drastically better in filtering out and stopping pollutants, viruses, and bacteria from entering the mouth or nasal passageway, with an efficacy of 95%.
However, they are also slightly more expensive, costing-wise. Plus, N95 masks need to be fitted and tested beforehand to make it effectively work for you. Compared to all other masks, N95 masks offer the highest level of protection.
FFP1 masks are considered an alternative to respiratory masks, such as the N95 ones. While N95 masks safely filter out 95% of the pollutants, viruses, and tiny particles, FFP1 masks protect a person from breathing in particles of more hazardous quality. They are usually also more securely fitted around the nose and the mouth to ensure that toxic or dangerous particles do not enter in.
iii] Activated carbon masks
As the name suggests, these masks contain an activated carbon filter, which helps collect and filter out the pollutants and germs and breathe in purer air. Studies also say that carbon filters present in the mask may even improve your lung capacity and respiratory muscles, making it a good buy if you live in an extremely polluted city.
That being said, these masks work very well in fighting pollution and tiny particles like bacteria and fungi which spread through the air we breathe in, and thereby, prevent allergies. However, they do not work exceptionally well in fighting or preventing viruses like COVID-19 from coming in contact. They can only trap a minuscule number of viruses (10-20%) and hence, may not be the best choice right now.
iv] Cloth and sponge masks
Over the recent weeks, with an acute shortage of masks supply in the market and lack of protective gear available, many are turning to homemade masks made out of different fabrics like cloth or sponge. While homemade masks do not match the effectiveness, they are better than having nothing on hand to fight the spread of germs, especially during a pandemic situation like this.
Simply put, homemade masks offer LESSER protection than surgical or respirator masks. However, as the CDC guidelines read, they can help a person keep the face area clean and prevent the spread of nasty germs and other contagious viruses. Sanitization and disinfecting are crucial steps that can prevent and stop the spread of coronavirus. Cloth and sponge masks filter out about 50% of bacteria and dust pollutants. How effectively they work in fighting viruses is still under study. Please note, using a homemade mask is a preventive mask which can come in handy during urgent times and should not be solely depended on as a form of defense.
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VARIOUS TYPES OF TESTS TO CHECK WHETHER WE INFECTED WITH THIS MOST PREVAILING VIRUS
Now in this time, the single hope for all governments of all countries to contain the spread of COVID-19 is to increase the speed of testing samples and every day they should reach maximum limit means day by day the testing of samples should be increased.
Viral tests check samples from your respiratory system (such as swabs of the inside of the nose) to tell you if you currently have an infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Some tests are point-of-care tests, meaning results may be available at the testing site in less than an hour. Other tests must be sent to a laboratory to analyze, a process that takes 1-2 days once received by the lab.
In India so far 56,58,614 samples out of 135 crore population have been tested up to this day, which is 0.4% of our total population and when we see the testing numbers of the USA, they tested 2,32,90,000 out of 33,10,00,000 which is 6.2% of their total population.
While the above stats one should get a point that India is a country with a massive population and USA is having comparatively less population. And the catch here in the USA is very ahead and make rapid testing to find who is having COVID-19 and who is not having it. As it was world’s most economical country it can make more testing and even faster than all other nations because they have adequate amounts of material to make rapid testing but whereas coming to India, this was the second-most populous country in the world and at the earlier stage India doesn’t have minimum support and back for testing as there are only two testing centres earlies but India had made very quick reflex and increases its virology centres and testing centre as it results to 1,50,000 samples tested in a single day.
And while coming to Testing technique types here we are
Two kinds of tests are available for COVID-19: viral tests and antibody tests.
A viral test tells you if you have a current infection.
An antibody test tells you if you had a previous infection.
An antibody test may not be able to show if you have a current infection, because it can take 1-3 weeks after infection to make antibodies. We do not know yet if having antibodies to the virus can protect someone from getting infected with the virus again, or how long that protection might last.
An antibody test is a screening for things called antibodies in your blood. Your body makes these when it fights infection, like COVID-19. The same thing happens when you get a vaccine, like a flu shot. That’s how you build immunity to a virus. You may also hear it called a serology test.
The antibody test isn’t checking for the virus itself. Instead, it looks to see whether your immune system — your body’s defense against illness — has responded to the infection.
You’ll have to give some blood, like through a finger prick. Doctors test for two kinds of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. They look for:
IgM antibodies, which develop early in an infection, and
IgG antibodies, which are more likely to show up later after you’ve recovered
It takes your body about 4 weeks to develop IgM antibodies. But scientists aren’t sure how long it’ll take for this to happen with SARS-CoV-2. More tests are needed to find out.
The diagnostic testing field for COVID-19 is rapidly evolving and improving in quality every day, with many tests focused on diagnosing patients with active viral infections.
Diagnostics able to detect current, active infections are typically molecular-based diagnostics, which inform researchers of the presence of the pathogen, either by identifying its genetic material or identifying unique markers of the pathogen itself. The viral genomic material for SARS-CoV-2 is ribonucleic acid (RNA), which remains in the body only while the virus is still replicating. There are also rapid antigen tests in development that act by detecting specific surface markers on the outside of the virus; none of these tests have received FDA emergency use authorization (EUA), nor are any available on the market at this time.
Molecular diagnostics usually require samples from the patient that is likely to contain a virus, such as nasopharyngeal swabs or sputum samples. Some pathogens may also be detected in feces, urine, or blood. For respiratory diseases like COVID-19, nasopharyngeal swabs have been considered to be the most reliable, as they sample an area of the respiratory tract where the virus appears to first infect an individual. This site is relatively easily accessed, compared to the final site of viral infection: the lower respiratory tract. Consequently, the nasopharyngeal tract likely has (1) active virus replication and (2) sufficient amounts of virus to be detected in kits. Many tests now available or in development can use saliva or nasal swabs that facilitate easier sampling procedures for healthcare providers and patients.
If you test positive for COVID-19 by a viral test, know what protective steps to take if you are sick or caring for someone.
If you test negative for COVID-19 by a viral test, you probably were not infected at the time your sample was collected. However, that does not mean you will not get sick. The test result only means that you did not have COVID-19 at the time of testing.
If you test positive or negative for COVID-19, no matter the type of test, you still should take preventive measures to protect yourself and others.
SUMMARIZING THE WHOLE CONCEPT WITH LITTLE CONCLUSION
The whole World is Fighting against this infection but the biggest challenge is Will the world nations can able to stop this pandemic situation and regain its position by bouncing back upon challenges. Will it end and will we make it to the end, we must make it end otherwise we end up by that deadly virus.
Here are some ongoing improvements for the COVID-19 in India
1] ICMR increased their capacity to test the samples day by day and initially India Is only managed to test 1000 samples per day but now we are testing 1,50,000 samples in 24hours, I think this is a major step towards stopping COVID-19 in India because we should test people as the COVID-19 is asymptomatic nowadays.
2] Lockdown was not announced because of fear of economic loss, as we can’t oppose the government’s decision because the economy is also important to regain and fight against COVID-19.
3) Although Containment zones have existed the movement over there is still the same as we should maintain some serious attention towards it.
4] And nowadays one term is getting more circulated ‘Herd Immunity’ got a look into this
Herd immunity happens when so many people in a community become immune to an infectious disease that it stops the disease from spreading.
This can happen in two ways:
Many people contract the disease and in time build up an immune response to it (natural immunity).
Many people are vaccinated against the disease to achieve immunity.
There are also many reasons why herd immunity won’t yet work to stop or slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19, the disease caused by an infection of the new coronavirus.
5] An WHO official said that Herd immunity will work in India because the recovery rate here is reached to 50% that means in India people are going to face, in a small note herd immunity is when we were going to cold places (hills, ranges….etc) we will feel cold and shivering, cough, cold may come but if you stay there for 1 or 2 months your immune system will habit to that place as like that if in India maximum people exposed to COVID-19 then their immune system can make them fight against the virus.
6] Implementation of herd immunity may work or not. As there is no current lockdown in India and no plans of extending lockdown is looks like some sort of ideas, but we should ready for everything and we must individually face the COVID-19 not along with Government nor with the whole country.
7] As soon as possible we will have Vaccine but up to that we must live with a virus all around us, and as we told already earlier here that one who is going out and exposing to COVID-19 is should take the whole responsibility.
8] Sanitizer, Masks, PPE kits, facial kits all these can avoid getting infected? These are the precautionary measure to take ourselves from getting infected and if we are really worried about ourselves then these things can help you but all must be done accurately to be safe. Recently N95 masks prices have been decreased and there is the availability of sanitizers and kits which are necessary, follow the WHO’s guidelines, and make yourself contained.
9] Moreover the testing to be done to not only persons with symptoms but also people involved in clusters of an infected patient. As observed in some states there are very less no.of samples tested like Telangana in India by this date only 30,000 samples have been tested and whereas other neighbor states performed tests to nearly 6,00,000. So, this type of plan, ideas, and decisions must be ignored and rapid testing should be implemented all over the country. Because a person can show the symptoms in 2-14 days if he/she doesn’t being tested in that 14days(in the worst case) he/she will make more activities so this results in more spread.
11] And finally, this pandemic situation is not going to end any coming soon so everyone must take care of his/her own and the people in their clusters, and mainly everyone must take it as seriously don’t fool yourselves after getting infected. Take the measures, precautions, strictly follow the orders of government and please avoid gatherings, meetings and any visits to temples..etc and this is the worst situation we and our country and the world facing this Virus. So, Be safe and make a safer environment.